How Can Oxygen Achieve A Stable Octet?

What is the expanded octet rule?

“Expanded octet” refers to the Lewis structures where the central atom ends up with more than an octet, such as in PCl5 or XeF4.

One can easily see that if the central atom, P, is to be joined to five Cl atoms, P would have 10 electrons instead of the octet..

Is oxygen stable or unstable?

Oxygen (“Octium”) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol O and atomic number 8. The element is very common, found not only on Earth but throughout the universe. Molecular oxygen (O2) (often called free oxygen) on Earth is thermodynamically unstable.

What obeys the octet rule?

Most structures—especially those containing second row elements—obey the octet rule, in which every atom (except H) is surrounded by eight electrons. Exceptions to the octet rule occur for odd-electron molecules (free radicals), electron-deficient molecules, and hypervalent molecules.

What is octet rule explain with an example?

In chemistry, the octet rule explains how atoms of different elements combine to form molecules. … In a chemical formula, the octet rule strongly governs the number of atoms for each element in a molecule; for example, calcium fluoride is CaF2 because two fluorine atoms and one calcium satisfy the rule.

What are the 3 exceptions to the octet rule?

However, there are three general exceptions to the octet rule: Molecules, such as NO, with an odd number of electrons; Molecules in which one or more atoms possess more than eight electrons, such as SF6; and. Molecules such as BCl3, in which one or more atoms possess less than eight electrons.

What are the names of stable forms of oxygen?

There are three known stable isotopes of oxygen (8O): 16O, 17O, and 18O.

How do you know if an atom is stable or unstable?

An atom is stable if the forces among the particles that makeup the nucleus are balanced. An atom is unstable (radioactive) if these forces are unbalanced; if the nucleus has an excess of internal energy. Instability of an atom’s nucleus may result from an excess of either neutrons or protons.

How do atoms achieve an octet to be stable?

A stable arrangement is attended when the atom is surrounded by eight electrons. This octet can be made up by own electrons and some electrons which are shared. Thus, an atom continues to form bonds until an octet of electrons is made.

Does oxygen follow the octet rule?

Octet rule: The concept that compounds containing carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine are more stable if these atoms have eight valence electrons. When one of these atoms has less than eight valence electrons it has an open octet. … Every carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine atom in this molecule has a full octet.

Why does oxygen follow the octet rule?

1 Answer. BRIAN M. The octet rule is the understanding that most atoms seek to gain stability in their outer most energy level by filling the s and p orbitals of the highest energy level with eight electrons. Oxygen has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p4 this means that oxygen has six valence electrons 2s22p4 .

Which elements can break octet rule?

There are three violations to the octet rule: odd-electron molecules, electron-deficient molecules, and expanded valence shell molecules.

What does the octet rule state?

The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects the observation that main group elements tend to bond in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electronic configuration as a noble gas.

Why is the octet rule not universal?

Molecules having an odd number of electrons like nitric oxide, NO and nitrogen dioxide, NO2, do not satisfy the octet rule for all the atoms. Elements in the third period of the periodic table and beyond have 3d orbitals, (apart from 3s and 3p orbital) available for bonding. … This is termed as the expanded octet.

Why is the octet rule important?

The octet rule is important in covalent bonding because sharing electrons gives both atoms a full valence shell. All atoms strive to achieve a full valence shell, just like the noble gases. This is the most stable electron arrangement. … Thus, each atom has eight valence electrons, a stable noble gas configuration.

How can oxygen become stable?

Usually any atom needs 8 electrons in its outer orbit in order to stay stable. But, the Oxygen atom has 6 electrons in its outer orbit. So, it needs two more electrons in order to make it 8. So, it makes a bond with another oxygen atom and shares 2 electrons each and becomes stable.